Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing Ourselves - An Inquiry into the Nature & Implications of Expertise. Peru, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company.
CSILE is built around a community database created by the students. SEE p.212-213 for description of CSILE.
The Hidden Knowledge of Experts (p.46)
three kinds of hidden knowledge play a role in expertise
informal knowledge (educated common sense)
impressionistic knowledge (feelings connected with informal knowledge)
self-regulatory knowledge (self-knowledge relevant to performance...not knowledge of the domain, but knowledge that works for me.)
Self-regulatory knowledge may be thought of as knowledge that controls the application of other knowledge.
Formal knowledge as negotiable knowledge
formal knowledge is: essential for dealing with issues of truth and justification; important for communication, teaching, and learning; provides startingpoints for the construction of informal knowledge and skills.
Every kind of knowledge has a part in expertise.
Common forms of reinvestment...(p.93)
Reinvestment in learning
Seeking out more difficult problems
Tackling more complex representations of recurrent problems
To the extent that people engage in progressive problem solving, they work at the edges of their competence. (p.98)
progressive problem solving differs from problem reduction
Margot is example of progressive, while Cynthia is example of reduction.
Flow requires a nice balance between ability and challenge.
If challenge exceeds ability, result is anxiety or frustration rather than flow. If ability exceeds challenge, result is boredom. Something must be done to increase the level of challenge so as to bring it into harmony with the increasing level of ability.
Second-Order Environments (p.105)
first-order = ordinary situations of work and everyday
second-order = conditions to which people must adapt change progressively as a result of the successes of other people in the environment.
Although it may take years to achieve expert levels of performance, the process of expertise could in principle begin very early. Therefore, instead of looking only for potential or precursors of expertise in children and beginners, we could look for the real thing--that is, for evidences of reinvesting mental resources in progressive problem solving--and could try to support those early manifestations of the process of expertise. (p.113)
Expertise, Vygotsky might have said, exists already in the culture. The learner's first contact with it comes through participating in activities along with people who already have the expertise. Gradually more responsibility is handed over to the learner, and in the process the learner 'internalizes' the expertise. (p.114)
In domains where expertise flourishes, problems tend not to have ceilings on them. There is always a higher level at which a problem can be approached, taking more variables into account, reaching a higher standard of result, or meeting a larger and more subtle range of requirements. The process of expertise is is the process of tackling problems at higher and higher levels--what we refer to here as 'progressive problem solving.' (p.120)
The link between creativityy and expertise is problem-solving. Progressive problem solving of daring kinds generates the knowledge that makes such daring ventures successful." (p.129)
What we understand about expertise in general would suggest that if there is an explanation of creative expertise it should like in what creative experts know that noncreative experts do not know. (p.135)
Varieties of promisingness...direct match to goal, match to capabilities, pointers to further possibilities. (p.137)
Notice that each of these recognitions of promisingness depends on prior knowledge and experience. Recognizing direct matches to goals depends on a background of means-end knowledge in the domain. (p.137)
..creative scientists would be expected to have a promising question schema, or perhaps a system of such schemas, which contain knowledge useful for matching questions to high-level goalsm, for evaluating questions according to the scientist's own abilities and passions, and for recognizing pointers leading from one promising question to another, or drom the question to promising methods, promising data sources, and the like. (p.138)
A creative person who has just caught the scent of a promising idea acts in many ways like a bird dog that had just caught the scent of a pheasant. Frozen in motion, ears pricked up, nose turned toward the wind... (p.139)
...creative expertise...is aquired...through progressive problem solving. What distinguishes it is problem solving directed toward creative goals. The essential characteristic of such goals is that they are sufficiently beyond the reach of well-learned procedures that one has to rely heavily on judgments of promisingness in order to proceed. (p.144)
Knowledge for judging promisingness...is the kind of knowledge that distinguishes creative from non-creative experts. (p.146)
The requirements for developing creative expertise are deceptively simple. They reduce to two: You must pursue creative goals and you must occasionally succeed. (p.147)
Notice that mentors who have not achieved a measure of creative success themselves are in no position to offer such guidance, even though they may be valuable in other ways. (p.147)
We call this immediate best-fit matching of new information to old knowledge direct assimilation. We all do it constantly and would be helpless making it through an ordinary day if we did not. (p.169)
This reminds me of the paradox of continuity. Clearly, direct assimilation feeds right into the paradox.
Given the inherent limitations of schooling, it seems essential for a child to have an intellectual life outside of school. (p.178)
Okay, so maybe that's what helped me survive my formal schooling.
Summary on p.181 is good.
Can a classroom function as a knowledge-building community, similar to the knowledge-building communities that make up the learned disciplines? (p.201)
Children described as expertlike learners must come from families that function at least to some extent as knowledge-building communities. (p.202)
Any community has to provide sufficient satisfactions of people's diverse motives that they will want to belong. Belonging means adapting, and in the case of a knowledge-building community, adaptation entails continual investment of personal resources in the advancement of knowledge. (p.205)
The New Model for Schooling on p.210 is INSPIRATIONAL.
big hope for technology ...lies in altering the conditions to which the social structure of the classroom, particularly the structure of the discourse, must be adapted. (p.218)
Central ideas of expertise: second-order environments, reinvestment of mental resources, progressive problem solving, working at the edge of competence, creative expertise, and active wisdom. (p.244-245)