Otten, E.H. (1998). Using Primary Sources in the Primary Grades. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
   Retrieved November 2004, from

"The use of primary sources in the classroom is a way for students to develop the intellectual curiosity that leads to further research and increased awareness of the world around them."

"Danzer and Newman (1991, 24) identify types of primary sources, including (1) print documents; (2) electronic media; (3) arts -- graphic and fine; (4) folklore, folkways, and mythology; and (5) physical environment and material culture (built environment and artifacts). These five categories may aid teachers in identifying primary sources. Danzer and Newman, however, caution teachers to recognize that some primary sources materials may fit into more than one of the categories."

"Primary sources are the ore from which history is made" (Danzer and Newman 1996, 22).

While the article is primarily about primary sources in history and social studies, the concepts about the nature of primary sources are directly applicable to the case files project.


Danzer, Gerald, and Mark Newman. "Primary Sources in the Teaching of History." In BRING HISTORY ALIVE! A SOURCEBOOK FOR TEACHING UNITED STATES HISTORY, eds. K. Ankeney, R. Del Rio, G. Nash, D. Vigilante. Los Angeles: National Center for History in the Schools, 1997. ED 417 121.