Student Provocateurs: Enhancing Public Debate and Awareness of Local Environmental Issues by Involving Students with Film

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

Literature Review For Project Student Provocateurs

The goal of this literature review is to discuss the Student Provocateurs Project in the context of projects from classrooms around the world utilizing video, to explore the role of student action in learning, and to characterize the potential of film as a medium for discovery and learning.

From Whence We Came: Video as Window and Mirror
Since 1904, when Thomas Edison predicted that movies would soon replace schools, the educational results of media have been exceeded by their hype.  Radio, TV, filmstrips, and now the Internet have all taken a turn as the next coming of education.  However, none have succeeded in transforming education.  We cannot relay on simply introducing new technologies into educational programs and passively use them as tools for growth.  Change will come when “students and teachers are creators.” (Robinson, 2006)

Photography was invented in the early 19th century.  In 1877, British-born Eadweard Muybridge used 12 equally spaced cameras to take pictures of a horse galloping. (Wikipedia, 2006)  These pictures were then used for the parlor toy known as the Zoetrope - a rotating drum with viewing slits that, when spun, made pictures inside the drum seem to move. In 1880, Muybridge worked out a way to project his still images of motion onto a screen using an invention called the Zoopraxiscope (How Things Work, 2006)

Inspired inventors soon created a single camera that took rapid pictures of things in motion and when played back gave the illusion of movement.  This was made possible by the invention of a camera that could move film quickly enough (16 frames per second) to take pictures of movement and also celluloid film flexible and resilient enough to move through a camera and a projector. (Northern Territory News, 2006)  American Thomas Edison took this technology and created the Kinetoscope, a device that allowed a person to view moving pictures through a slot.  France's Lumiere brothers created the Cinematographe. It flickered more than Edison's invention but it projected its images on a screen and was more portable than Edison's design and public film viewing was born.

One of the first motion pictures released for viewing by a paying audience was “Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory” by Robert Paul and Birt Acres. (Wikipedia, 2006)  One of the earliest fantasy filmmakers was Georges Melies who created a soundless and very futuristic portrayal fittingly entitled “A Trip to the Moon.” (YouTube, 2006)  With the addition of sound in the 1920’s, film took on a completely new dynamic and with it a new power.  (FilmSound, 2006)

Today’s Film: Student Video production
Modern film images dominate our culture with their powerful images and captivating messages.  Filmmaking and video utilization is now being offered on a large scale within the classroom.  Education Plant (Website) offers 84 lessons for “film making.”  Lesson Planet (Website) offers 912 lessons for “filmmaking.”  The powerful nature of visual imagery combined with student’s natural curiosity has been shown to “promote active student involvement in their classroom experience during a year-long medical-surgical nursing course.” (Epstein, et al, 2003)  Epstein’s work has also shown video projects encourage students, promote pattern recognition, to develop teamwork strategies, and to practice their presentation skills in a safe environment among their peers, while increasing retention of information and immersing students in the experience of becoming experts.  “These projects have enabled students to become engaged and invested in their own learning in the classroom.” (Epstein, et al, 2003)  As the North Central Regional Educational Laboratories report, 21st Century Skill states, “Today’s children are ‘growing up digital.’” (NCREL, 2005)

A quick Internet search reveals over 125 links to “Film Schools” around the world with programs in community colleges, undergraduate and graduate schools, and online. (USA Study Guide)  Rainbow Media's IFC (Independent Film Channel) has arranged its own course to teach students the ins and outs of filmmaking. IFC launched Film School last November, with a curriculum that ties into English classes nationwide. It consists of a six-part lesson plan that encourages kids to read, write and, ultimately, create short films based on literature.  The AFI Screen Education Center offers a 5-Step process that is “designed to help teachers help students use the tools of filmmaking to master core curriculum subjects, from literature to math and science.” (AFI Website, 2006)  Apple Computer has an extensive multimedia educational section on their website for teachers and educators, where classroom examples are described and results given that reveal the transforming power of video for young children. Teachers report their students were “totally engaged in the learning” and “This is a great way to boost self-esteem and empower young children!” (Apple.com, 2006)
Film has an undeniable power on us all.  Educators are taking a greater interest in “visual literacy” as “an effective way of reaching students whose primary means of interaction, communication, and entertainment is visual.” (Adams, 2005)  Additional work by Adams, Carey, and Davidson, reveal the power of digital video as engaging, being able to utilize their media interests and technology skills, and covering a wide range of subject areas. (Pede, 2001)  Bob Montgomery, a first grade teacher at Ross Montessori School in Carbondale, CO, created Kindergarten First Graders!, a project designed to help students learn about each other, introduce them to digital photography, and use computer software (iPhoto and iMovie). (Carey, 2006)  His work is an example of introduction and utilization of technology by very young audiences.

Students are reporting on their personal experiences with digital video; “This let me be creative and figure out new ways to incorporate technology into my thinking.  It also showed me how important it is to learn as much as possible about an issue before forming an opinion.” (Mangan, 2005)  Mangan creates lessons for her students that incorporate video clips, photography, narration, and musical soundtracks. (Mangan, 2005)  The most popular course at Hunterton Central Regional HS in Hunterton Central School District in Flemington, NJ is Honors Imaginative Processes (HIP) taught by McGinn.  The course focuses students on writing and literature and use videoconferencing and digital cameras to work with a local university weekly, assigns each student a college student from Ryder University, has students combine creative writing with multimedia, and helps them create digital portfolios of their work to later be used for college application. (McGinn, 2000)  Osborne High School, just outside of Atlanta, GA, is using ScreenPlay, a Microsoft video editing system, to increase student’s involvement in technology and has seen an increase in student spirit, attendance, and interest in school. (Davidson and Pade-Quail, 2002)

Tomorrow and Beyond: Film as a Social Catalyst
An eSchool News report on education on the Gulf Coast discussed how students are sharing their stories after the devastation of Hurricane Katrina changed their lives.  “Hundreds of students gathered in New Orleans to show off digital films they had made chronicling their experiences.” (eSchools, 2006)  At the end of the Film Festival, “students also learned their films will have national distribution and will become part of the permanent historical record for future generations.” (eSchools, 2006)  Tim Comolli at South Burlington High School in South Burlington, VT started a Video Imaging Lab in 1999.  Colmolli explains, “It is typically during the editing process that students begin to understand how manipulation of video images and graphics can create positive or negative stories and sway public opinion.  As a result, emphasis is placed on how to produce accurate stories based on research and factual information.” (Patton, 1999)  With national distributions and an understanding of the power of their video projects, students are ready for Project Student Provocateurs with its forward thinking and forward curriculum. (Gold, 2002)

What makes PSP different and the next step in the utilization of video and the power of film in the classroom is its promotion of the natural curiosity, concern, and energy of children.  PSP also offers a direct and clear model for individual and collaborative film endeavors, an important aspect identified by Lindroth.  PSP is based on the sound and proven film instructional ideas to guide students through information gathering, story outlining, job requirements (ranging from the writers, producer, director, floor manager, prop manager, camera operation, and editor), to talent, scripting, story boarding, production, editing, and public revealing. (Scot, 2004, Van Horn, 2001) 

Civic action is the cornerstone to a democratic society.  For centuries, our world has been shaped by the participation of its citizens.  There have been many turning points that began with an individual’s courage in a public debate.  Just listing the manes of a few of the many notable social activists in our world's history reveals their power and importance even today:  Susan B. Anthony, Martin Luther King, Jr., Rosa Parks, Gandhi, John Lennon, Nelson Mandela, Mother Teresa.  Project Student Provocateurs combines children’s natural tendency to question their world and place in it with the power of film as a medium for message delivery  in the spirit of McLuhan and Fiore (1967).

Around the country, youth activism has been declining. But it wasn't always so. “For much of the second half of 20th century, student political activism occupied a special place in the history of many countries and Singapore is no exception. Driven by their youthful energy, idealism and romanticism before they were tied down by the heavy burdens of family, career and property ownership, students of Singapore had also once surged to the forefront of national politics, exerted an influence out of proportion to their numbers and become a force to be reckoned with.” (Huang, 2006) In 1972, the first year that 18-year-olds were given the right to vote, nearly 50% turned out.  For the 1998 mid-term elections, 20% of those 18-25 turned out to vote.  Only 26% of those 18-25 year-olds believe voting is “extremely important” and 16% report volunteering in a political campaign. (OneWorld.net, 2006)

Work by Larson and Hansen reveals important features of  youth activism.  “These youth came to understand different human systems, the school board, teachers, and students, and they learned to employ three strategic modes of reasoning: seeking strategic information, framing communications to the audience, and sequential contingency thinking.” (Larson and Hansen, 2005)  Their work also points to the importance of adult participation and encouragement in their cycle of experiential learning.

Summary: Then, Now, Tomorrow
Albert Einstein said, “The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them."  "Control the media, and control the world." (Joseph Stalin)  Project Student Provocateurs takes the work of Edison, Paul, Acres, combined with what we have learned about student’s involvement with technology and film as “technology natives,” into a new area of student involvement and action.  Building on children’s natural curiosity of the world and their place in it, Project Student Provocateurs challenges students to create public discourse through films. Inspired by the newest efforts of people like Dr. Tim Tyson and Hal Davidson and their work in inspiring students of all ages, we plung forward.

Public discourse allows for exchange of ideas and opens the dialogue on important issues.  Involving students through media capitalizes on three important concepts: Students are passionate about their world and their place in it, they are technologically savvy, and we learn best by doing.  PSP brings these ideas together with a powerful purpose.  “Student’s gathered, with a clear focus, to change policy through action.” (Huang, 2006)

References
Adams, Leslie, 2005.  The Digitization of Learning.  T.H.E. Journal 32 no11 June 2005

Carey, Kathy, 2006.  Fame at an Early Age.  Montessori Life, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2006

Davidson, U.S. and Page-Quail, Catherine, 2002.  Osborne High’s Mass Digital Transformation.  T.H.E. Journal 29 no7 50-2 February 2002

Derby, John, 2005.  Accountable for the implementation of secondary visual arts standards in Utah and Queensland.  Masters Thesis, Brigham and Young University, March 2005

eSchool News, Staff Report, Golf Coast Students share stories via video
http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showStoryts.cfm?ArticleID=6539&page=1

Epstein, C.D., Hovancsek, M.T., Dolan, P.L., Durner, E., La Rocco, N., Preiszig, P., and Winner, C., 2003.  Lights! Camera! Action!: Video projects in the classroom.  Journal of Nursing Education, Vol. 42, Issue 12, December 2003.

Gentile, D.A., Walsh, D. A. 2002.  A normative study of family media habits. Applied Developmental Psychology, Vol. 23, 2002.

Gold, Rebecca, 2002.  Multi Media Comes of Age.  Multimedia School 9 no2 14-20 March/April 2002

Huang, Jianli, 2006.  Positioning the student political activism of Singapore: Articulation, contestation and omission.  Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, Vol. 7, Issue 3, September 2006.

Larson, R. and Hansen, D., 2005.  The development of strategic thinking: Learning to impact human systems in a youth activism program.  Human Development, Vol. 48, Issue 6, November 2005.

Lindroth, Linda, 2004.  How To…Create a Digital Movie.  Teach PreK-8 35 no3 November/December 2004

Mangan, Katherine, 2005.  Make Videos: An Education Course Puts Students in Director’s Chairs.  The Chronical of Higher Education B6, b10 June 24 2005 supp

McLuhan, Marshall, and Fiore, Quentin, 1967.  The Medium is the Message.  Bantam Books, New York, New York, 1967.

McGinn, Florance, 2000.  Digital cameras and video cameras in the classroom.  Media and Methods 37 no1 September/October 2000

NCREL, 2005.  21st Century Skills. http://www.ncrel.org/engauge/skills/growup.htm

Northern Territory News, Australia, 2005.  Making Movies.  Nationwide News Pty Limited, features pg 18, September 5, 2006.

OneWorld.net, 2006.  OneWorld US Special Report: Youth Activism and Global Engagement: Part 1, 2006.  http://www.benton.org/OneWorldUS/Aron/aron1.html

Patton, Carol, 1999.  Using Video Cameras in Schools.  Media and Methods 36 no2 14 November/December 1999

Pede, Elliot, 2001.  Call in the SWAT team. Learning and Leading with Technology 28 no7 April 2001

Robinson, Sir Ken, 2006.  The importance of creativity in education.  TEDTalks (Sir Ken Robinson), 2006

Scot, Tammy Pandina and Harding, Diane, 2004.  Splicing Video into the Writing Process.  Learning and Leading with Technology 32 no1 26-7, 29, 31, September 2004

Van Horn, Royal, 2001.  Digital Video: get with it!  Phi Delta Kappan 82 no10 June 2001

Sites
http://www.afi.edu/intro/program.aspx
AFI Screen Education Center – Program Description

http://www.thedirectorintheclassroom.com/
Listing of lesson plans for filmmaking and video in the classroom

http://www.shambles.net/pages/school/videoOL/
Video website links – lots of them

http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=254
free lesson plan for script writing and filmmaking

http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/lessons/storyboarding/
film story boarding

http://www.khake.com/page45.html
Vocational Information center for filmmaking, digital photography, career descriptions, etc…

http://www.usastudyguide.com/top-directing-film-schools.htm
USA Study Quide source site for Film Schools and Film Programs

http://www.filmsound.org
History and technology innovations of sound in film

 

Source Summary

Adams, Leslie, 2005. The Digitization of Learning. T.H.E. Journal 32 no11 June 2005
Kaiser Family Foundation study – Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year-Olds
Looked at the media habits of 2000 3-12 graders nationwide, found that students spend, on average, 8.5 hours per day consuming media
Educators are taking a greater interest in “visual literacy” as an effective way of reaching students whose primary means of interaction, communication, and entertainment is visual. “Re-engaging students.”
Power of digital video
• Engage students
• Utilize their media interest
• Tech skills
• Covers wide range of subjects

Carey, Kathy, 2006. Fame at an Early Age. Montessori Life 18 no2 2006
Review
Bob Montgomery, a first grade teacher at Ross Montessori School in Carbondale, Co
Created Kindergarten First Graders! Project to help students learn about each other, introduce them to digital photography, and using iPhoto and iMovie
From another teachers work – http://ali.apple.com/ali_sites/ali/exhibits/1000879
Illustrated the power of video in the hands of a very young audience and that they are capable of learning and using technology at an early are

Davidson, U.S. and Page-Quail, Catherine, 2002. Osborne High’s Mass Digital Transformation. T.H.E. Journal 29 no7 50-2 February 2002
Review
Osborn HS located just outside Atlanta, GA
Using ScreenPlay (a PC-free video editing system)
Editing done easily with ScreenPlay
Increased student spirit
Increasing attendance, interests,

Gold, Rebecca, 2002. Multi Media Comes of Age. Multimedia School 9 no2 14-20 March/April 2002
Review
This is just part of the results of a multimedia and technology initiative, funded by a successful referendum and a partnership with Safari Technologies, Inc.
• Important to have student benefits drive the process/system
• Forward thinking to forward curriculum
“Under the leadership of our superintendent, Dr. Max Riley, we are following a strategic plan based on school and student achievement. As Riley states, ‘We begin by asking teachers what needs to change. Then we provide school leaders with performance data. They have responded by identifying the data they don't have, knowing what to look for, and what to do with it when they get it.’”
“Since 1904, when Thomas Edison predicted that movies would soon replace schools, hype about media has exceeded educational results. Radio, TV, filmstrips, and, most recently, the Internet have all taken a turn as the panacea of the moment. Each has suffered from the same fatal flaw: the assumption that simply introducing a new technology would result in improvement. It is the use of any tool that may or may not lead to improvement, and passive use is less likely to do so than uses where students and teachers are creators. Communications must be two-way if learning is to flourish. Our system allows us to do this now, rather than waiting for the eventual arrival of widespread high-speed connectivity.”
Relationships with vendors need be design and build not cookie cutter
http://www.ncrel.org/engauge/skills/skills.htm
http://www.ncrel.org/engauge/skills/skills.htm

Lindroth, Linda, 2004. How To…Create a Digital Movie. Teach PreK-8 35 no3 November/December 2004
A nice and simple methods resource about creating a digital video in a elementary school.
• Preplanning
o Choose a topic
o Set the scene
o Film scene
• Edit Movie
• Label clips
• Write a story and narrate your video
• Stay consistent with effects

Lunt, Betty, 1998. A Unique School’s Use of Electronic Encyclopedia. Media and Methods 34 no4 36-7 March/April 1998
Using technology to allow access to useful information and enhance effective communication.
King Middle School, Portland Maine
King has a refugee resettlement program that brings people from all over the world to their small town. This creates a great challenge for their educational system.
Have used technology to meet this challenge. Use simulations (Sim City 2000) and electronic encyclopedia.

Mangan, Katherine, 2005. Make Videos: An Education Course Puts Students in Director’s Chairs. The Chronical of Higher Education B6, b10 June 24 2005 supp
Use Apple loptops to create work that incorporates video clips, photography, narration, and musical soundtracks.
Impacted students
"This let me be creative and figure out new ways to incorporate technology into my teaching," says the Texas junior, whose video included interviews with friends and news-media images of soldiers and Abu Ghraib prisoners. "It also showed me how important it is to learn as much as possible about an issue before forming an opinion."
“Preparing a 45-minute lecture requires many of the same editing skills the students used in making their short videos, he says. He sees other parallels as well between creating a movie and preparing an effective lecture: In both, the material should be engaging, entertaining, and well paced.”

McBroom, George, 1995. Interactive CD Yearbook and Multimedia Journalism. Media and Methods v32 p18+ September/October 1995
Daytona Beach Florida, Mainland High School
Produced CD yearbook. Interesting story of first uses of technology in education.
A nice list of current (1995) technology and interesting juxtaposition to technology now.

McGinn, Florance, 2000. Digital cameras and video cameras in the classroom. Media and Methods 37 no1 September/October 2000
Review
Hunterton Central Regional HS in Hunterton Central School District in Flemington, NJ
Most popular course in Honors Imaginative Processes (HIP) which focuses on writing and literature
Use Videoconferencing and digital cameras
• Work with Ryder University once a week via videoconference
• Each HS student is assigned to one college student who majors in English (pier review program)
• “Cyberliterature” – combine creative writing with multimedia
• Digital portfolios – more and more students are now creating digital portfolios of their work to show to potential colleges and universities

Patton, Carol, 1999. Using Video Cameras in Schools. Media and Methods 36 no2 14 November/December 1999
Tim Comolli at South Burlington High School in South Burlington, VT and Video Imaging Lab
Comolli explains, "It is typically during the editing process that students begin to understand how manipulation of video images and graphics can affect positive stories and sway public opinion. As a result, emphasis is placed on how to produce accurate stories based on research and factual information."
"Start small by involving the local media and by showing your videos on a local access cable channel," says Comolli. "Then watch as the excitement gets started."

Pede, Elliot, 2001. Call in the SWAT team. Learning and Leading with Technology 28 no7 April 2001
Review
SWAT – Students Working to Advance Technology
Working from the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics (NCSSM) in Durham
SWAT Activities
• Team President
• Video Production
• Camera Operation
• Video Editing
• Web page design
• Computer lab administration
• Special effects
• Video production instruction
• Camera operator instruction
• Film editing instruction

More info to create your own SWAT team at your school
www.dlt.ncssm.edu and www.swatweb.net
Jon Davis at davisjp@ncssm.edu
Or
North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
PO Box 2418
Durham, NC 27705

Scot, Tammy Pandina and Harding, Diane, 2004. Splicing Video into the Writing Process. Learning and Leading with Technology 32 no1 26-7, 29, 31, September 2004
Fifth graders using writing and exploring digital video in PBL. New students need to be able to communicate with pictures, both moving and still, audio, and text.
Article demonstrates how to design a series of lessons in which students create digital videos during the course of content-specific units.
Preproduction
• Gather content-specific information
• Story outline
o What facts need to be included
o What different viewpoints need to be represented
o How can the emotions and feelings of the people be recreated
• Assign Jobs
o Writing
o Production
o Director
o Floor manager
o Prop manager
o Camera operator
o Editor
o Talent
• Scripting
• Story Boarding
• Production
o Acting
o Make-up
o Set design
o Camera shooting
o Sound
• Editing
• Reflections
A comparison of the digital video and writing processes.
Digital Video Process Writing Process
Preproduction Prewriting
Gathering content-specific information Researching
Concept mapping Brainstorming
Teaming, collaboration, and consensus building Webbing
Scripting Organizing
Storyboarding
Production Drafting
Production lesson
Rehearsing
Planning and resource management
Filming
Postproduction Editing
Rough digital editing Revising
Class feedback Proofreading
Continued digital editing Peer editing
Adding additional audio, visuals, stills, graphics Final editing
Creating credits, titles, and dedications Publishing
Publishing: distribution and showings

Stearns, Jared, 2006. Going Pro. Technology and Learning 26 no7 32, 34, 36, 38 February 2006
Text may be here to stay, but that isn't stopping K-12 schools from broadening their curriculum offerings to include audio, video, and other multimodal styles of communication. A combination of savvy digital natives, affordable software, and online tutoring has created a perfect opportunity to integrate professional level video and videoconferencing into curricula. Students in Broward County, Florida were recently treated to an informal concert by a world-renowned Japanese Shakuhachi musician from his studio outside of Tokyo by way of their videoconferencing set-up. Eighth grade students at Eastview Middle School in White Plains, New York, studying AIDS and preventive awareness, interviewed HIV-positive peers in South Africa. At Gordon Parks Academy, a pre-K-6 school in East Orange, New Jersey, students in television production classes get professional training in everything from how a television works to editing, preproduction, and on-location shooting.
Technology in schools today
TV news casting
Videoconferencing
School Partnering
Virtual Field Trips
Tandberg's Connections Program The Connections Program specializes in "virtual field trips" to such places as the Smithsonian Institution and the Baseball Hall of Fame.
www.tandberg.net/ind_focus/education/connections.jsp

 

Van Horn, Royal, 2001. Digital Video: get with it! Phi Delta Kappan 82 no10 June 2001
Review
Mac 6100 AV computer revolutionized the industry and made video a powerful new technology
Mac recently coined the term ‘decktop movies”
Showing teaching and learning is more effective that talking about teaching and learning to help teachers become better teachers and learners – use digital and streaming video
“Just about every sector of the economy makes abundant use of digital and streaming video – except education.”
Lobby for a “edge network” for educational use to get streaming video nearer to the user and information more accesable
InTime – www.intime,uni.edu
Intime doea a great job showing how teachers can impliment standards based reform to integrate technology into the classroom.
Teachscape – www.teachscape.com
This site is a well funded commercial venture whose goal is to capture the market on the use of digital video in the professional development market.
NBPTS ISTE and Apple joint project to be called the Digital Library Project – now seeking applicants www.nbpts.org
Check out www.electronicscholar.com

 

eSchool News, Staff Report, Golf Coast Students share stories via video
http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showStoryts.cfm?ArticleID=6539&page=1

Review
One year after Hurricane Katrina changed the lives of Gulf Coast students forever, hundreds of students gathered in New Orleans to show off digital films they had made chronicling their experiences. At the Mobile Learning Institute Gulf Coast Film Festival, students also learned their films will have national distribution and will become part of the permanent historical record for future generations.
A very meaningful experience for the kids
Other useful weblinks – http://pearsonfoundatioin.org.MLI and www.eschoolnews.com/helparrives

http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e941dc0a063cffa9175141c70b9803674b987208be139fa49d67f5d5041d1e57c&fmt=H
Mangan, K. S. Make Videos: An Education Course Puts Students in Director's Chairs. The Chronicle of Higher Education (June 24 2005 supp) p. B6, B10

http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e941dc0a063cffa91140b43af0e14abc53601976008bebeb2a680ae9b1b4d7da7&fmt=H
Stearns, J. Going Pro. Technology & Learning v. 26 no. 7 (February 2006) p. 32, 34, 36, 38

http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e941dc0a063cffa9175141c70b980367402a866cd432ec059daf4f837f5141115&fmt=H
Adams, L. The Digitization of Learning. T.H.E. Journal v. 32 no. 11 (June 2005) p. 50

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Scot, T. P., et. al., Splicing Video into the Writing Process. Learning and Leading with Technology v. 32 no. 1 (September 2004) p. 26-7, 29, 31

http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e941dc0a063cffa91be352dd51fed807d64d7d94a2606a1db07307493950286e2&fmt=H
Gold, R. Multimedia comes of age. Multimedia Schools v. 9 no. 2 (March/April 2002) p. 14-20

http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e941dc0a063cffa91be352dd51fed807de015d0b08994b088d96c75be3d927f91&fmt=H
Osborne High's mass media digital transformation [ScreenPlay]. T.H.E. Journal v. 29 no. 7 (February 2002) p. 50-2

http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e941dc0a063cffa917f6cafc69b945f2b1ab2d435adc81415c15670baa81b85fd&fmt=H
Greher, G. R. Lessons in analytical listening from the reel world. General Music Today v. 15 no. 1 (Fall 2001) p. 9-15

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iMovie 2 [review]. T.H.E. Journal v. 29 no. 3 (October 2001) p. 70

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McGinn, F. Digital cameras & video cameras in the classroom. Media & Methods v. 37 no. 1 (September/October 2000) p. 51

http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e941dc0a063cffa913a1916c0584aafb8dd97cc1782206e2362c42f863d3e46cd&fmt=H
Patton, C. Using video cameras in schools. Media & Methods v. 36 no. 2 (November/December 1999) p. 14

http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e941dc0a063cffa914eec1021293c71540782f7c3c2c8e073a8edb36e4fb00354&fmt=H
McBroom, G. Interactive CD yearbook and multimedia journalism. Media & Methods v. 32 (September/October 1995) p. 18+

http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e941dc0a063cffa917f6cafc69b945f2b8660f8b2995a8a3b12d4066a0979129c&fmt=H
Van Horn, R. W. Digital video: get with it!. Phi Delta Kappan v. 82 no. 10 (June 2001) p. 799-800

http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e941dc0a063cffa91140b43af0e14abc5b800f16ba10722ee544e9da309391f7b&fmt=H
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